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Environment - Life Sciences - 30.12.2019
Life could have emerged from lakes with high phosphorus
Life could have emerged from lakes with high phosphorus
Life as we know it requires phosphorus. It's one of the six main chemical elements of life, it forms the backbone of DNA and RNA molecules, acts as the main currency for energy in all cells and anchors the lipids that separate cells from their surrounding environment. But how did a lifeless environment on the early Earth supply this key ingredient? "For 50 years, what's called 'the phosphate problem,' has plagued studies on the origin of life,” said first author Jonathan Toner , a University of Washington research assistant professor of Earth and space sciences.

Materials Science - Life Sciences - 30.12.2019
Materials ’remember’ past stresses as they age
A new study by University of Chicago and University of Pennsylvania scientists shows that as materials age, they 'remember' prior stresses and external forces, which researchers can then use to create new materials with unique properties. The study, published Dec. 20 in  Science Advances , found that certain types of materials have a "memory" of how they were processed, stored, and manipulated.

Astronomy / Space Science - 26.12.2019
Beyond campus: Photos of Stanford researchers in the field
This year, researchers traveled across the country and around the world, producing work that adds to our understanding of life on Earth and informs potential solutions for improving our health and the health of our planet. From mining tunnels under South Dakota to the peatlands of Brunei, Stanford University researchers travel to destinations near and far, high and low, wet and dry to collect samples, observe subjects and collaborate across cultures and countries.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 26.12.2019
Mindfulness video game changes areas of the brain associated with attention
With an estimated 97 percent of adolescents playing video games in their free time, there is growing potential to design games as tools for attention-building instead of attention-busting. A research team at the Center for Healthy Minds at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of California, Irvine, designed a video game to improve mindfulness in middle schoolers and found that when young people played the game, they showed changes in areas of their brains that underlie attention.

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 26.12.2019
Biomarker predicts which patients with heart failure have a higher risk of dying within 1 to 3 years
FINDINGS A UCLA-led study revealed a new way to predict which patients with "stable" heart failure — those who have heart injury but do not require hospitalization — have a higher risk of dying within one to three years. Although people with stable heart failure have similar characteristics, some have rapid disease progression while others remain stable.

Materials Science - Physics - 26.12.2019
How a ’vegetable ion’ helped scientists unlock theory behind transitions of materials
A puddle freezing on the sidewalk, your humidifier pumping out water vapor, salt trucks melting icy streets-wintertime in Chicago is full of examples of a physics phenomenon called a "phase transition," in which a material changes state. Physicists are fascinated by this phenomenon, which is useful in technology from the basic steam turbine all the way to MRIs.

Physics - 23.12.2019
"Tweezer Clock" May Help Tell Time More Precisely
Atomic clocks are used around the world to precisely tell time. Each "tick" of the clock depends on atomic vibrations and their effects on surrounding electromagnetic fields. Standard atomic clocks in use today, based on the atom cesium, tell time by "counting" radio frequencies. These clocks can measure time to a precision of one second per every hundreds of millions of years.

Physics - Chemistry - 23.12.2019
Scientists create a ’crystal within a crystal’ for new electronic devices
Breakthrough from Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering lets scientists tailor blue phase crystals Liquid crystals have enabled new technologies, like LCD screens, through their ability to reflect certain color wavelengths. Researchers at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have developed an innovative way to sculpt a liquid "crystal within a crystal." These new crystals could be used for next-generation display technologies or sensors that consume very little energy.

Physics - 23.12.2019
In Tooth Enamel, Slight Crystal Misorientations Stop Cracks in Their Tracks
In Tooth Enamel, Slight Crystal Misorientations Stop Cracks in Their Tracks
Adult teeth can last a lifetime, withstanding enormous chewing pressures applied hundreds of times each day for decades. In a recent study published , researchers discovered a natural toughening mechanism: small misorientations among the nanocrystal building blocks of human tooth enamel. Enamel is composed of hydroxyapatite, a biomineral that forms long and thin 50-nanometer wide nanocrystals, bundled into rods like uncooked spaghetti in tubes.

Chemistry - 23.12.2019
These Artificial Proteins Have a Firm Grasp on Heavy Metals
These Artificial Proteins Have a Firm Grasp on Heavy Metals
Peptoid library developed at Berkeley Lab could accelerate the design of new materials for a number of applications A team of scientists led by Berkeley Lab has developed a library of artificial proteins or "peptoids" that effectively "chelate" or bind to lanthanides and actinides, heavy metals that make up the so-called f-block elements at the bottom of the periodic table.

Health - Pharmacology - 23.12.2019
Unique Cancer Drug Discovered With Help From Advanced Light Source Begins Historical Clinical Trial
Unique Cancer Drug Discovered With Help From Advanced Light Source Begins Historical Clinical Trial
An investigational cancer drug that targets tumors caused by mutations in the KRAS gene will be evaluated in phase 2 clinical trials, following  promising safety and efficacy results  in preliminary human studies and excellent results in animal studies. The drug, developed by Amgen and currently referred to as AMG 510, is the first therapy to reach clinical trials that inhibits a mutant KRAS protein.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 20.12.2019
Supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy may have a friend
Smadar Naoz is an associate professor of physics and astronomy in the UCLA College. She wrote this article for The Conversation. Do supermassive black holes have friends' The nature of galaxy formation suggests that the answer is yes, and in fact, pairs of supermassive black holes should be common in the universe.

Life Sciences - 20.12.2019
Protein Signposts Guide Formation of Neural Connections
The brain's complex tangle of interconnected nerve cells processes visual images, recalls memories, controls motor function, and coordinates countless other functions. A major goal of neuroscience is understanding how the brain is "wired"-in other words, how do all of its neurons know how they should connect to each other to achieve optimum function?

Astronomy / Space Science - 20.12.2019
Galaxy Gathering Brings Warmth
As the holiday season approaches, people in the northern hemisphere will gather indoors to stay warm. In keeping with the season, astronomers have studied two groups of galaxies that are rushing together and producing their own warmth. The majority of galaxies do not exist in isolation. Rather, they are bound to other galaxies through gravity either in relatively small numbers known as "galaxy groups," or much larger concentrations called " galaxy clusters " consisting of hundreds or thousands of galaxies.

Physics - Computer Science - 20.12.2019
The Quantum Information Edge Launches to Accelerate Quantum Computing R&D for Breakthrough Science
A nationwide alliance of national labs, universities, and industry launched today to advance the frontiers of quantum computing systems designed to solve urgent scientific challenges and maintain U.S. leadership in next-generation information technology. The Quantum Information Edge strategic alliance is led by two of the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Sandia National Laboratories.

Administration - 20.12.2019
Border walls could have unintended consequences on trade
Three decades ago, the world was home to fewer than a dozen border walls. Now, their numbers have swelled to more than 50. In a supposed era of openness and collaboration, why are these structures not only persisting, but proliferating? According to research co-authored by a University of Chicago political scientist, border walls exist not only as manifestations of anti-globalist sentiment, but as barriers with real economic impact-some of which may be unintended.

Economics - Computer Science - 20.12.2019
When machine learning packs an economic punch
When machine learning packs an economic punch
Study: After eBay improved its translation software, international commerce increased sharply. A new study co-authored by an MIT economist shows that improved translation software can significantly boost international trade online - a notable case of machine learning having a clear impact on economic activity.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.12.2019
Study identifies new role of major genetic risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease
Channels McGill University News and Events For years, physicians have been aware that patients carrying the apolipoprotein '4 (APOE ?4 ) gene are at a greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. New research from McGill University has now found the gene plays an even greater role in dementia.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 19.12.2019
Mimicking enzymes, chemists produce large, useful carbon rings
Drawing inspiration from nature, University of Wisconsin-Madison chemists have discovered an efficient way to wrangle long, snaking molecules to form large rings - rings that form the backbone of many pharmaceuticals but are difficult to produce in the lab. The work may represent preliminary progress toward deciphering just how enzymes, honed by evolution, so efficiently produce natural compounds.

Health - 19.12.2019
Process that may explain how Type 2 diabetes develops
A new study helps to explain the mechanism by which pancreatic cells secrete high levels of insulin during the early stages of diabetes. A central question in diabetes research is why cells of the pancreas, known as beta cells, initially over-secrete insulin. The prevailing theory was that the body may be in the process of becoming "deaf" to insulin, so beta cells secrete more to compensate.
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